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Title: Altered lignocellulose chemical structure and molecular assembly in CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-deficient rice
Authors: Martin, Fadillah, Andri
Tobimatsu, Yuki  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Kusumi, Ryosuke  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Matsumoto, Naoyuki
Miyamoto, Takuji
Lam, Ying, Pui
Yamamura, Masaomi
Koshiba, Taichi
Sakamoto, Masahiro
Umezawa, Toshiaki  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Author's alias: 飛松, 裕基
坂本, 正弘
梅澤, 俊明
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 9
Thesis number: 17153
Abstract: Lignin is a complex phenylpropanoid polymer deposited in plant cell walls. Lignin has long been recognized as an important limiting factor for the polysaccharide-oriented biomass utilizations. To mitigate lignin-associated biomass recalcitrance, numerous mutants and transgenic plants that produce lignocellulose with reduced lignin contents and/or lignins with altered chemical structures have been produced and characterised. However, it is not fully understood how altered lignin chemistry affects the supramolecular structure of lignocellulose, and consequently, its utilization properties. Herein, we conducted comprehensive chemical and supramolecular structural analyses of lignocellulose produced by a rice cad2 mutant deficient in CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD), which encodes a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. By using a solution-state two-dimensional NMR approach and complementary chemical methods, we elucidated the structural details of the altered lignins enriched with unusual hydroxycinnamaldehyde-derived substructures produced by the cad2 mutant. In parallel, polysaccharide assembly and the molecular mobility of lignocellulose were investigated by solid-state 13C MAS NMR, nuclear magnetic relaxation, X-ray diffraction, and Simon’s staining analyses. Possible links between CAD-associated lignin modifications (in terms of total content and chemical structures) and changes to the lignocellulose supramolecular structure are discussed in the context of the improved biomass saccharification efficiency of the cad2 rice mutant.
Rights: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
DOI(Published Version): 10.1038/s41598-019-53156-8
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