|Title:||日・英・米人事行政機関の生存戦略 --「名声による自律性」か「敵を作らぬ中立性」か --|
|Other Titles:||Comparison of Survival Strategies of Civil Service Commissions in Japan, U.K. and U.S.: 'Autonomy by Reputation' or 'Neutrality by Avoiding Conflicts'?|
|Author's alias:||SHIMADA Logie, Hiroko|
|Abstract:||Independent Civil Service Commissions were originally established to insulate the civil service from party politics, but their actual function differs across countries and periods. The National Personnel Authority in Japan was modeled on the U.S. CSC under the Occupation, but conflicted with ministries where the German-style merit system had been firmly established. After a series of demands for its abolition, the NPA managed to survive under the National Civil Service Law revised of 1965 by concentrating on pay recommendations without exercising other legal functions. Facing the civil service reform towards political initiatives in the 2000s, however, it claimed its original role of precluding political influence. Since this claim was severely criticized by public opinion as exceeding the limit of the civil service, the NPA reconfirmed its devotion to pay. The absence of objective standards for personnel allocation thus has endured. This strategy corresponds with that of ʻneutrality by avoiding political conflictsʼ（Huber）, differs from that of the U.K. CSC, ʻautonomy by reputationʼ（Carpenter）or that of the U.S. CSC/OPM, ʻdiscretion granted for fulfilling its roleʼ（Gailmard & Patty）.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Articles|
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