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Title: Miles Gloriosus 1354-1370に隠された二重の意味
Other Titles: A Double Meaning Embedded in Miles Gloriosus 1354-1370
Authors: 宮坂, 真依子  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: Miyasaka, Maiko
Issue Date: 28-Feb-2022
Publisher: 京都大学西洋古典研究会
Journal title: 西洋古典論集
Volume: 26
Start page: 90
End page: 104
Abstract: In Miles Gloriosus, Plautus creates a unique setting in which a ‘cunning slave' (servus callidus) has to serve two ‘masters' at the same time. In general, slaves are expected to be faithful to their masters. In this play, however, the ‘old master' i.e., the ‘young man' (iuvenis) and the ‘new master' i.e., the ‘soldier' (miles) have conflicting interests, and Palaestrio, as a servus callidus, cannot fulfill his fides to both ‘masters' in parallel. A difference of perception is also set up in this play: the audience is told by Palaestrio himself that he intends to be loyal to the ‘old master' all through the play, but the ‘new master' does not know this. This paper focuses on the three dialogues (1354-1355, 1364-1365, 1368-1370), in which Palaestrio addresses the ‘miles' using the word fides/ fidelis in Act 4 Scene 8. The nature of fides, which is key to the master-slave relationship, is used skillfully to give the dialogue a double meaning: a primary meaning directed at the soldier, and a secondary meaning that is Palaestrio's true intention (understandable to the audience who knows what is going on). This paper points out that these lines, as dramatic irony, are the key lines that increase the humour of this play and lead to the climax of the story. In addition, these lines show a typical example of the situation which Segal, 1969 called "Comic Reverse", by which Plautus would have made the audience laugh and be satisfied with his brilliant reversal of the social status of masters and slaves, which in the real world of Rome was generally insurmountable.

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