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Title: ブータン極東部高地のメラックにおける牧畜の変化とその歴史的社会的背景
Other Titles: Changes in the Pastoralism of Merak, in the Far-eastern Highlands of Bhutan, and their Historical and Social Background
Authors: 稲村, 哲也  KAKEN_name
ドルジ, タシ  KAKEN_name
川本, 芳  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Author's alias: Inamura, Tetsuya
Dorji, Tashi
Kawamoto, Yoshi
Issue Date: 1-May-2012
Publisher: 京都大学ヒマラヤ研究会・京都大学ブータン友好プログラム・人間文化研究機構 総合地球環境学研究所「高所プロジェクト」
Journal title: ヒマラヤ学誌 : Himalayan Study Monographs
Volume: 13
Start page: 283
End page: 301
Abstract: メラックの牧民は, 本来はヤクとその交雑種ゾムの移牧に専業的に従事していたが, 約60年前に, ジャツァム(在来ウシ♀とミタン♂の交雑家畜)やミタンを, 下流の農村から導入した. そして, 近年, より多くのジャツァム, ジャツァム・ゾム(ジャツァムとヤク♂の交雑種), ヤンクム・ゾムなど(ヤクと在来ウシとミタンの「三元交雑」を含む)多様な交雑種を飼うようになった. そうした変化の要因の一つは, 1962年に起こった中国インドの国境紛争の結果, チベット由来の種ウシが供給されなくなったこと, そして人口増加により, 低地で放牧できる家畜の需要が高まったことが挙げられる. 他に, 経済的理由がある. つまり, ジャツァムは手に入れやすく, ジャツァム・ゾムは多くのミルクを生産する. またジャツァム・ゾムとミタンの交雑により, ゾムの再生産が可能となった. それらは, 市場経済化によってより多くの現金が必要となった牧民のニーズに適合した. 飼養家畜, とくに新しいタイプの交雑の多様化は, 歴史的社会的背景に対する, メラックの牧民のユニークな適応戦略と言える
Herders in Merak, in the far-eastern highlands of Bhutan, traditionally used to raise only yaks and their hybrids, but about 60 years ago they introduced jatsams (hybrids between local cattle and mithun bulls) and mithun bulls from downstream villages. In recent years they are raising increasing numbers of jatsams, jatsam zoms (hybrids between jatsams and yak bulls), yangkum zoms and other types of hybrids (including multiple crosses of yaks, local cattle, and mithuns). One factor that has led to these changes is a lack of Goleng bulls (a Tibetan breed of cattle) due to the border conflict that erupted between China and India in 1962 and the resulting cessation of trade with Tibet. Another is the decrease and deterioration of high pastureland for yak grazing and the pressure of population increase, which has led to a demand for animals that can be pastured in lowland pastures. Yet another factor is economic. Jatsams and local cattle are easy to obtain, jatsam zoms produce large quantities of milk, and through backcrossing with mithun the reproduction of jatsam zoms has become possible. These changes coincide with the needs of herders who require more cash than in the past because of the introduction of a market economy. The diversification of raised animals, especially new type of hybrids, is a unique strategy of adaptation by the herders of Merak to their historical and social circumstances.
DOI: 10.14989/HSM.13.283
Appears in Collections:第13号

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