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Title: インド北部ヒマラヤ山脈西部北斜面チャンタン地域における遊牧民の生業構造についての予備調査 : 遊牧民カルナクパD世帯における食料摂取の事例から
Other Titles: Preliminary Survey about the Subsistence of a Nomad in Changtang Area, Northern Slope of West Himalayan Mountain, Northern India : From the Case Study of Food Intake in a D Household of Karnak-pa Nomad
Authors: 平田, 昌弘  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: Hirata, Masahiro
Keywords: 遊牧

milk products
adaptation in high altitude
Issue Date: 1-May-2012
Publisher: 京都大学ヒマラヤ研究会・京都大学ブータン友好プログラム・人間文化研究機構 総合地球環境学研究所「高所プロジェクト」
Journal title: ヒマラヤ学誌 : Himalayan Study Monographs
Volume: 13
Start page: 128
End page: 141
Abstract: 農耕を一切おこなわず, 家畜飼養のみに生業を依存する遊牧民の食糧摂取の現状を調査し, その特徴を分析することを目的に, インド北部ラダーク管区チャンタン地域において遊牧民カルナクパD世帯を対象に栄養学的な予備調査をおこなった. カルナクパD世帯の食料摂取パターンの特徴は, 1)目覚めのツァム・トゥック(チーズのオオムギスープ), 朝食, 昼食, 夕方のお茶/食事, 晩食の1日5回の決まった食事で成立ち, 2)全摂取エネルギー量の内, 食料自給量は39.3%~45.0%, 購入量は55.0%~60.7%と, 農耕に一切携わってない遊牧民のカルナクパではあるが, 摂取エネルギーの半分以上を外部から購入した穀物などの食料に頼り, 市場経済に大きく依存してしまっていること, 3)日常の生活の中で肉類をほとんど摂取していないこと, 4)乳製品の摂取量が, 全摂取エネルギー量の32.5%~45.7%ともなり, 日常の食生活においては乳製品の摂取が極めて重要になっていること, 5)コムギ粉の摂取量も乳製品に次いで全摂取エネルギー量の30.1%~32.2%と高いこと, 6)塩バター茶は, 常に備えられて, 頻繁に摂取され, カルナクパの食生活の土台にあるが, ンガン・ペイ(オオムギ炒り粉)はそれほど頻繁には摂取されていないこと, 7)政府の配給制度により, コムギ粉とコメの摂取割合は増加し, 代わってオオムギ粉の摂取量が低下していること, 8)乳製品の供給が十分にあり, 農産物を全て購入する状況下においては, 食料摂取におけるマメの重要度は低下すること, 9)植物油が入手できない時代においては, 乳製品は重要な脂質をカルナクパの人びとに供給していたが, 植物油を使う現在においては脂質摂取過多となりがちであると, まとめることができる. 農耕に一切携わらないカルナクパD世帯の食料摂取から理解されることは, 家畜を飼養する目的は, 家畜を殺して, 肉を食べることにではなく, 家畜から乳を搾乳し, 乳製品を摂取することにあることである. 牧畜という生業の本質がここにある.
The preliminary nutritional survey on a D household of "Karnak-pa" nomad was conducted in Changtang area, Ladakh region of north India to understand the situation of food intake by the nomads of which subsistence depend only on livestock keeping, not on crop producing, and analyze its characteristics. The characteristics of food intake in the D household are summarized as the following 9 points. 1) The daily food intake is composed by 5 times such us morning cheese-barley soup named as "Tsam thuk", breakfast, lunch, evening tea/food and dinner. 2) The energy intake of Karnak-pa nomad was supplied by 39.3 % - 45.0 % from self-sufficient foods and 55.0 % - 60.7 % from purchased foods. Although Karnak-pa nomads don't engage in any agricultural production activities, the more than half amount of their energy intake depends on the purchased foods such us wheat, rice and sugar. Hence, the Karnak-pa nomad depends largely on the local market economy. 3) They seldom take any meat in normal daily life. 4) Since the milk products contribute 32.5 % - 45.7 % of total energy intake to their diet, the intake of milk products is extremely important for their daily food. 5) The amount of wheat intake by the Karnak-pa nomad is 30.1 % - 32.2 % of total energy intake and its intake is also big contribution to their food intake next to the milk products. 6) Although the salty butter tea is always prepared and frequently took by the Karnak-pa nomad, and forms the foundation for their dietary habit, the roasted barley flour isn't often eaten by them. 7) Because of the rationing system by the Indian government, the intakes of wheat and rice have increased, and contrarily the intake of barley has decreased. 8) The importance of bean contribution into food intake decrease under the situation of enough supply of milk products and the purchase of all agricultural products from local markets. 9) Although the milk products make an important role in fat intake for the Karnak-pa nomad when they couldn't get enough vegetable oils from markets, excessive fat intake is likely to happen for them in the current situation of easier vegetable oil purchasing. It is understood from the point of the food intake style of D household of "Karnak-pa" nomad who don't engage in any agricultural activities that the purpose of livestock keeping is not for its meat eating by themselves, but for the milking from their livestock and take milk products for themselves. Here is the essential nature of subsistence, "pastoralism".
DOI: 10.14989/HSM.13.128
Appears in Collections:第13号

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