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Title: チベット高原西部におけるチベット系ラダーク牧畜民カルナクパの季節移動システム : インド北部ヒマラヤ山脈西部北斜面チャンタン地域カルナクでの事例から
Other Titles: Seasonal Movement System of a Tibetan Ladakh Pastoralist, Karnak-pa, in the Western Tibetan Plateau : A case from Karnak, Changtang Area, the Northern Slope of Western Himalaya, North India
Authors: 平田, 昌弘  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: Hirata, Masahiro
Keywords: チャンタン
difference of elevation
seasonal movement
Issue Date: 1-May-2012
Publisher: 京都大学ヒマラヤ研究会・京都大学ブータン友好プログラム・人間文化研究機構 総合地球環境学研究所「高所プロジェクト」
Journal title: ヒマラヤ学誌 : Himalayan Study Monographs
Volume: 13
Start page: 113
End page: 127
Abstract: ヒマラヤ高地における牧畜民の季節移動システムを把握し, その季節移動戦略の特徴を分析するために, インド北部ジャンムー・カシミール州ラダーク管区カルナクにおいて2010年9月と2011年8月に参与観察とインタビューとをおこなった. 牧畜民カルナクパの季節移動は, 4月下旬から9月中旬/10月中旬にかけての夏・秋期の放牧と9月中旬/10月中旬から4月下旬にかけて冬・春期の放牧に大きく分かれていた. 夏・秋期の間の移動の狙いは, より良き草資源を求めての移動であり, 移動は草資源の状態によって左右されていた. 冬・春期の間の移動は, 牧野の草資源が更に乏しくなるため, 家畜群を分け, 草資源を分散して利用することが企てられていた. 冬・春期にも, より良き草資源を求めて移動し, 野生植物を補助飼料として刈り取りできる草地, 乾草を蓄積できる場所を求めて移動していた. そして, 厳寒の冬に備え, 石組みの住居, 気温のより暖かい場所(より低地), 強風からの回避, 凍らない水資源を利用できる場所も宿営地の選択として重要であった. カルナクパの季節移動の特徴をまとめると, 一年を通じての草資源と水資源の確保, 移動と放牧は全世帯が共同体となって一緒に行動を共にしていることであり, 冬には厳寒に備える防御と補助飼料確保のために宿営地が選ばれているとまとめることができる. 牧畜民カルナクパは, ヒマラヤ高地を一年を通じてほとんど標高差なく利用し, 農耕に一切携わらず, 世帯成員が全員一緒に移動し, 家畜飼養のみに依存して生業を成り立たせていた. これらのことから, 牧畜民カルナクパの生業形態は, 高地における遊牧であると類型分類される. 高地で遊牧という生業が成りたつ背景には, 広域交易の存在がある.
The participant observation and interview on the nomad, "Karnak-pa", were conducted in September of 2010 and August of 2011 in Karnak, Ladakh district, Jammu and Kashmir Province, north India to understand the seasonal movement of the pastoralist in the Himalayan highland and analyze the characteristics of its strategy. The seasonal movement of Karnak-pa was largely classified into the 2 phases, summer and autumn grazing from late April to middle September/middle October, and winter and spring grazing from middle September/middle October to late April. The target of seasonal movement for grazing during summer and autumn was to get better grass resources, and the time of its movement was influenced by the condition of grass resources. Since grass resources in rangeland become scanty during winter and spring, Karnak-pa makes flocks and herds divided to utilize grass resources extensively. The target of seasonal movement for grazing during winter and spring was also to get better grass resources, and also Karnak-pa selected the rangeland to collect more native plants for making supplementary feeds and the place to deposit its dry hey. Houses made by stones, places with warmer temperature such us a lower place, places to escape against strong wind, places available of non-freezing water resources were also important factors for camping places of Karnak-pa during winter and spring. The characteristics of seasonal movement of Karnak-pa is summarized as they move seasonally to ensure the resources of grass and water through the year, and all households of Karnak-pa move together always and help each other for grazing, and the camping places are selected to escape against severe coldness and also to collect and deposit supplementary feeds in winter. The pastoralist, Karnak-pa, utilized in the Himalayan highland almost horizontally through the year, nver engaged in agricultural activities, moved together with all households in Karnak, and run their subsistence by depending only on livestock keeping. From those points, the pastoral form of Karnak-pa is classified as nomadism in the higher place. It is the broad trading that supports the existence of nomadism in the higher place.
DOI: 10.14989/HSM.13.113
Appears in Collections:第13号

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