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Title: <論文>日本宗教の文化的特性 : 近代化と呪術的志向性
Other Titles: <ARTICLES>The Cultural Characteristic of Japanese Religion : Modernization and the Magical Thinking
Authors: 沼尻, 正之  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: NUMAJIRI, Masayuki
Issue Date: 25-Dec-1996
Publisher: 京都大学文学部社会学研究室
Journal title: 京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
Volume: 4
Start page: 109
End page: 124
Abstract: This article seeks to explain the cultural characteristics of religion in Japan, especially in comparison with that in European society. For this purpose, I want to pay attention to the relation of modernization of society and religion. At first I want to examine the theory of what is called "two modernizations" by Shigeru Nishiyama, which is probably the most referred to in the discussion of this theme. Although he insists that he takes a post- Weberian perspective, it seems to me that he still depends upon an Weberian view, when he analyses the religious situation in modern Japan and concludes that modernization has promoted a rational type of religion. Secondly I want to verify Shimazono Susumu's argument about the influence of modernization upon religion. In contrast to Nishiyama, he points out that in Japan the progress of modernization did not discourage the way of magical and animistic thinking, or rather, perhaps even encouraged it in many religious sects he analyzed. Indeed his point is very interesting and shows very clearly the characteristics of the religious situation in modern Japan, but, from my point of view, he fails to explain why such a phenomenon has taken place. It can be explained, in my opinion, as a result of the mutual penetration and dependence of religion and magic, which, I believe, is the fundamental structure of Japanese religion. That is to say, magic could survive because it was linked with religion in narrow sense that could not be influenced by the modernization process. I want to examine this issue by making reference to the argument about the Japanese folk religion. In conclusion I want to show the concrete example of the mutual penetration of religion and magic. That is a phenomenon of "healing". It has been considered merely as a magical and irrational action, but many examples illustrate that it is a phenomenon that accommodates both magical and religious elements.
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