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Title: <論文>チベット・タンカの変貌-- タンカの芸術化と観光化をめぐって
Other Titles: Changes in Tibetan angka :As Sacred Objects Becoming Art or Souvenirs
Authors: 張, 詩雋  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: ZHANG, Shijun
Keywords: チベット仏教
仏教美術
観光
商品化
ベンヤミン
Tibetan Buddhism
religious art
tourist
commoditization
Benjamin
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2018
Publisher: 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科 文化人類学分野
Journal title: コンタクト・ゾーン
Volume: 10
Issue: 2018
Start page: 72
End page: 104
Abstract: 本稿の目的はチベット文化圏における代表的な宗教美術、タンカの生成と近年の変貌について考察することである。 第1章では、ベンヤミンによる芸術作品の礼拝的価値と展示的価値について紹介したあと、大量生産される宗教的な物品およびタンカに関する先行文献を整理する。第2章では、ラサにある観光的な空間およびそれとほぼ重なる宗教的な空間を簡単に説明し、現地の様子を素描する。第3章ではタンカの歴史と伝統的な流派、タンカの広がりとチベット仏教の伝播との関連性を考察した上で、広域にわたるチベット文化圏のインド、ネパール、また中国の内陸部、チベットなどの民族の間に生じる交渉、および神聖なタンカの制作実践をめぐる変革を描き出す。第4章では、2013年にラサ市で開催されたタンカの展示会、タンカの発展に関する討論会、タンカ絵師のコンテストなどのイベントの紹介を通して、タンカの芸術化について考察する。それはまた商品化への動きでもある。最後の第5章では観光客相手に大量生産されている土産タンカについて分析する。芸術化も観光化も世俗化の一部と位置付けることができるが、購入者は自宅でタンカを崇拝対象にする場合もある。この意味で、現在のタンカに関わる宗教実践はより私事化、民主化し、さらに外国へ渡ってグローバル化していると言えよう。この変化は、チベットを包摂する中国社会の変化に対応している。ベンヤミンは、西洋美術の歴史を礼拝的価値から展示的価値への変化としてとらえているが、タンカおよびタンカをめぐる一連の実践に生じた変化を考えると、それは単線的な変化とは言えない。複製技術が発展する中、新たな宗教的価値がモノに付与されるのである。
Tibetan Thangkas, a pictorial representation of deities and religious subjects of Tibetan Buddhism that holds significant religious functions, are becoming typical Tibetan Buddhism art as well as important tourist attractions. This case study of Tibetan Thangkas in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region in China, stresses the dynamic commoditization in reference to this sacred object, Tibetan Thangka. To start with, I assess the Tibetan Buddhism boom that is taking place in China. Being a form of representation of Tibetan Buddhism, Thangkas are pinning both religious and secular orientations. The creation of Thangkas is not merely a devotional practice, but also an act to generate merits for realistic prospect. Then, I have a review on Benjamin's analyses of Western Art at the Age of Mechanical Reproductions. His discussions concerning the cult value and exhibition value of art-reproduction were pertinent enough to be used as reference when considering the changes in Thangkas. I also summarize previous studies where images of deities from different religious backgrounds were used as commodities, along with a few earlier works on tourist Thangkas, especially those written by Bentor (1993) and McGukin (1999). They emphasized the existence of "intermediate audience", which consisted of the non-Tibetan Asian Buddhists and the non- Tibetan followers of Tibetan Buddhism, and implied that this group of audiences was highly concerned with the authenticity of Thangkas that helped tourist Thangkas to promote some degree of adherence to traditional standards. Both works are very thorough and valuable. Yet, I would like to point out that their preoccupation with traditional standards and steady authenticity has already been deconstructed, since the tradition of Thangkas, which claims to be authentic Tibetan, actually has elements derived from various cultures. To prove my point, after the brief introduction about my fieldwork and the particular circumstances of Lhasa in chapter 2, I focus on the connections between the Tibetan Thangkas and the Tibetan Buddhism in history in chapter 3. Through the investigation of the history of Tibetan Thangkas, I suggest that the "authenticity" of Thangka which consists of several different elements, is changing slightly and constantly. In chapter 4, I reveal the processes of Thangka commoditization and the rationalization provided by Tibetans in Lhasa. Some of them were dedicated to make their "sacred Thangka" as a unique Tibetan art. I investigated 3 events themed on Thangka in 2013, including "the Modern Thangka Exhibition", the Forum of Tibetan Thangka Industry", and "the Contest of Thangka Painter". In all cases, authentic Thangkas far surpassed the single identity of sacred objects that were produced for religious functions, and demanded exhibition value. The standards of "authenticity" of Thangka is turning to cooperate with the artistic discourses. According to new standards, the tourist Thangkas have been removed from the category of the authentic ones, however, as I explain in chapter 5, as the local Tibetan Buddhists are becoming much more tolerant of the mass production of Thangkas, the tourist Thangka is permitted to hang in the altars and become a sacred object. Summing up, my data on the changing nature of Thangkas in contemporary China, suggests an elaboration of Benjamin's scheme from cult value to exhibition value.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/232958
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