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Title: New diagnosis for energy flow from solar wind to ionosphere during substorm: Global MHD simulation
Authors: Ebihara, Y.
Tanaka, T.
Kamiyoshikawa, N.
Author's alias: 海老原, 祐輔
上吉川, 直輝
Keywords: substorm
solar wind‐magnetosphere‐ionosphere coupling
energy transfer
energy conversion
MHD simulation
Issue Date: Jan-2019
Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Journal title: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume: 124
Issue: 1
Start page: 360
End page: 378
Abstract: To investigate the energy involved by a substorm, we performed global magnetohydrodynamics simulation for different solar wind conditions. The intensity of the auroral electrojet increases with the southward component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the solar wind velocity, which is consistent with observations. To evaluate the energy that enters the magnetosphere, we first defined a solar wind effective cross‐sectional area in which all the Poynting fluxes entering the magnetosphere pass through. We found that the solar wind magnetic energy is insufficient to provide the magnetic energy entering the magnetosphere (intake magnetic energy) for southward IMF. About 33–88% of the intake magnetic energy is converted from the solar wind kinetic energy. About 2–7% of the solar wind kinetic energy (passing through the effective area) is converted to the magnetic energy that enters the magnetosphere. Significant contribution from the solar wind kinetic energy makes the energy coupling function complicated. The effective area also depends on the solar wind parameters, also making it complicated. An interesting point is that the rates of energy stored and released in the lobe also depend on the solar wind parameters. The ionospheric Joule heating rate is well correlated with the intake magnetic energy at onset, and during the substorm expansion. The correlation coefficients between them are better than that of the ε parameter. These results imply that both the directly driven process (manifested by intake magnetic energy) and loading‐unloading process (manifested by stored/released energy in the lobe) are largely regulated by the solar wind condition.
Rights: ©2019. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/237228
DOI(Published Version): 10.1029/2018JA026177
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