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Title: <論説>マフディーかく語りき --サイイド・ムハンマド・ムシャアシャアのマフディー自称論理--
Other Titles: <Articles>Thus Spoke a Mahdī: Sayyid Muhammad al-Musha'sha''s Logic for Self-proclamation as a Mahdī
Authors: 角田, 哲朗  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: SUMIDA, Tetsurou
Keywords: イラン
Early Modern Islamic Dynasties
Issue Date: 31-May-2019
Publisher: 史学研究会 (京都大学大学院文学研究科内)
Journal title: 史林 = THE SHIRIN or the JOURNAL OF HISTORY
Volume: 102
Issue: 3
Start page: 399
End page: 438
Abstract: モンゴル勢力がアッバース朝カリフを殺害したことで、イスラーム世界では旧来の宗教的権威が不在となった。これに対し、一四~十五世紀のイランのシーア派は、マフディーを僭称する者を断続的に生み出し、既存の政治体制を揺るがした。本稿では、そのようなマフディー自称者のひとりであるサイイド・ムハンマド・ムシャアシャアの教説書『マフディーの言葉』を取り上げて、著者のマフディー自称を補強するために展開された種々の論理を検討する。彼は自身の論の基盤となる「霊肉二元論」から「歴代イマームらの不死」や「アリーの神格化」といった様々な異端的なテーゼを派生させ、これらを組み合わせることで隠れイマームを終末の日に現れるメシアと認めつつも、その実際的な顕現を否定し、自らをその代理として位置付けることに成功した。彼の思想は、非現実的なメシア主義を現実化させて、己の統治権を追認するといった性格と評すことができる。
After the Mongol invasion and the murder of the last 'Abbāsid Caliph during the 13th century, the absence of central religious authority prompted several messianic movements throughout the Islamic world. More specifically, the eschatological expectation of the Mahdi pervaded the Persianate world, and several individuals claimed to be the Mahdī and sought to overthrow the established regime with help from their militant followers. As is shown in the case of Safavid movement --even though it was one of few successful cases of the establishment of a new body politic--, the serial struggles led by those Mahdīs had the potential to change the religio-political milieu. This paper focuses on one of those self-proclaimed Mahdīs, Sayyid Muhammad al-Musha'sha' (d. 1466), who established a local dynasty in Khūzistān in the middle of the 15th century, and his own work Kalām al- Mahdī, which he composed in Arabic. This unpublished work is infamous for its heterodox tenets based on the Twelver Shi'ite belief, such as the "deification of 'Alī" and the "immortality of twelve Imāms." Some scholars had tried to reconstruct Sayyid Muhammad's thought based on Kalām al-Mahdī. Nevertheless, they failed to explain systematically his claims, so that their researches have been no more than enumerations of his sensational theses. This seems to be caused by the textual structure of Kalām al-Mahdī, where most of theses are inconsistently scattered throughout the text. However in regard to the theory of his selfproclamation as a Mahdī, the text is logical enough to clarify it. The logic for Sayyid Muhammad's Mahdīhood can be summarized as follows: while he recognized the Hidden Imām of Twelver Shī'ite as the messianic Mahdī, he himself claimed to be a Mahdī as the deputy of the Hidden Imām. To dissolve this duality of Mahdīhood, the author constructed his own theory with the following three-step logic: 1) denial of the immediate manifestation of the Hidden Imām as the Mahdī; 2) demonstration of the reason why the Hidden Imām requires a deputy; 3) identification of the author as the deputy as he defined. In conclusion, Sayyid Muhammad routinized the radical Mahdism particular to the post-Mongol period, and successfully acquired religio-political authority derived from the awaited Mahdī.
Rights: 許諾条件により本文は2023-05-31に公開
DOI: 10.14989/shirin_102_399
Appears in Collections:102巻3号

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