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Title: Phylogenetic relationship of a fossil macaque (Macaca cf. robusta) from the Korean Peninsula to extant species of macaques based on zygomaxillary morphology
Authors: Ito, Tsuyoshi
Lee, Yung-jo
Nishimura, Takeshi D.
Tanaka, Mikiko
Woo, Jong-yoon
Takai, Masanaru
Author's alias: 伊藤, 毅
西村, 剛
田中, 美希子
高井, 正成
Keywords: Biogeography
Computed tomography
East Asia
Macaca
Phylogentic morphometrics
Issue Date: Jun-2018
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Journal title: Journal of Human Evolution
Volume: 119
Start page: 1
End page: 13
Abstract: Little is known about the biogeographical and evolutionary histories of macaques (Macaca spp.) in East Asia because the phylogenetic positions of fossil species remain unclear. Here we examined the zygomaxillary remains of a fossil macaque (M. cf. robusta) from the Durubong Cave Complex, South Korea, that dates back to the late Middle to Late Pleistocene, to infer its phylogenetic relationship to extant species. We took 195 fixed- and semi-landmarks from the zygomaxillary regions of the fossil specimen and from 147 specimens belonging to 14 extant species. We then conducted a generalized Procrustes analysis followed by a multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate the phenetic affinities of the fossil to the extant species and reconstructed the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree using a phylogenetic morphometric approach. We found that the fossil was most similar to Macaca fuscata (Japanese macaque) in the zygomaxillary morphospace although it was at the limit of the range of variation for this species. The second closest in the morphospace was the continental Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque). Parsimonious reconstruction confirmed that the fossil was most closely related to M. fuscata, even after controlling for the effects of allometry. These findings suggest that in the late Middle to Late Pleistocene, close relatives of M. fuscata that looked like the extant species were distributed on the Korean Peninsula, where no species of macaques are found today. Thus, some morphological characteristics of M. fuscata may have developed before its ancestor dispersed into the Japanese archipelago.
Rights: © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version. この論文は出版社版でありません。引用の際には出版社版をご確認ご利用ください。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/243881
DOI(Published Version): 10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.02.002
PubMed ID: 29685750
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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