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dc.contributor.authorIoka, Kunihito
dc.contributor.authorLevinson, Amir
dc.contributor.authorNakar, Ehud
dc.contributor.alternative井岡, 邦仁
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-09T04:59:02Z-
dc.date.available2019-12-09T04:59:02Z-
dc.date.issued2019-04
dc.identifier.issn0035-8711
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2433/245031-
dc.description.abstractThe breakout of a fast (>0.1c), yet sub-relativistic shock from a thick stellar wind is expected to produce a pulse of X-rays with a rise time of seconds to hours. Here, we construct a semi-analytic model for the breakout of a sub-relativistic, radiation-mediated shock from a thick stellar wind, and use it to compute the spectrum of the breakout emission. The model incorporates photon escape through the finite optical depth wind, assuming a diffusion approximation and a quasi-steady evolution of the shock structure during the breakout phase. We find that in sufficiently fast shocks, for which the breakout velocity exceeds about 0.1c, the time-integrated spectrum of the breakout pulse is non-thermal, and the time-resolved temperature is expected to exhibit substantial decrease (roughly by one order of magnitude) during breakout, when the flux is still rising, because of the photon generation by the shock compression associated with the photon escape. We also derive a closure relation between the breakout duration, peak luminosity, and characteristic temperature that can be used to test whether an observed X-ray flare is consistent with being associated with a sub-relativistic shock breakout from a thick stellar wind or not. We also discuss implications of the spectral softening for a possible breakout event XRT 080109/SN 2008D.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherOxford University Press (OUP)
dc.rightsThis article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2019 Kunihito Ioka, Amir Levinson, Ehud Nakar. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
dc.subjectradiation: dynamics
dc.subjectshock waves
dc.subjectgamma-ray burst: general
dc.subjectsupernovae: general
dc.subjectstars: Wolf–Rayet
dc.subjectX-rays
dc.subjectbursts
dc.titleThe spectrum of a fast shock breakout from a stellar wind
dc.type.niitypeJournal Article
dc.identifier.jtitleMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
dc.identifier.volume484
dc.identifier.issue3
dc.identifier.spage3502
dc.identifier.epage3509
dc.relation.doi10.1093/mnras/stz270
dc.textversionpublisher
dc.addressCenter for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University
dc.addressCenter for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University・The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University
dc.addressThe Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University
dc.identifier.kaken18H01215 / 17H06357 / 17H06362 / 17H06131 / 26287051
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