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Title: Group influences on children’s delay of gratification: Testing the roles of culture and personal connections
Authors: Munakata, Yuko
Yanaoka, Kaichi
Doebel, Sabine
Guild, M. Ryan
Michaelson, E. Laura
Saito, Satoru  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 齊藤, 智
Keywords: self-control
executive function
social influences
cognitive development
open data
open materials
group identity
Issue Date: 8-Jan-2020
Publisher: University of California Press
Journal title: Collabra: Psychology
Volume: 6
Issue: 1
Thesis number: 1
Abstract: Delaying gratification can be difficult, especially for children. Social factors such as group norms influence whether children delay gratification and may shape their life trajectories. However, such influences have been tested experimentally only in American contexts and may not generalize, given differences among cultures in personal connections and group dynamics. We tested the influences of groups and personal connections on delaying gratification in 106 Japanese preschoolers. Extending previous findings with American preschoolers, Japanese children also delayed gratification and valued delaying gratification more if they believed that their group delayed gratification (and an outgroup did not) than if they believed that their group did not delay gratification (and an outgroup did). Group identity shifted toward the outgroup when Japanese children had a personal connection to the outgroup, but they nonetheless followed the behavior of their ingroup in delaying gratification. These findings highlight similarities and potential differences in social influences across cultures, and underscore the importance of cross-cultural work for theories of development.
Rights: © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See
DOI(Published Version): 10.1525/collabra.265
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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