|Title:||Aqueous and organic extract of PM2.5 collected in different seasons and cities of Japan differently affect respiratory and immune systems|
|Authors:||Chowdhury, Pratiti Home|
Honda, Akiko https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7358-4372 (unconfirmed)
Ueda, Kayo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2104-1384 (unconfirmed)
|Author's alias:||本田, 晶子|
|Journal title:||Environmental Pollution|
|Abstract:||Particulate matter with diameters <2.5 μm (i.e., PM₂.₅) has multiple natural and anthropological sources. The association between PM₂.₅ and the exacerbation of respiratory allergy and asthma has been well studied, but the components of PM₂.₅ that are responsible for allergies have not yet been determined. Here, we elucidated the effects of aqueous and organic extract of PM₂.₅ collected during four seasons in November 2014–December 2015 in two cities (Kawasaki, an industrial area and Fukuoka, an urban area affected by transboundary pollution matter) of Japan on respiratory health. Ambient PM₂.₅ was collected by high-volume air samplers and extracted into water soluble and lipid soluble components. Human airway epithelial cells, murine bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (APC) and splenocytes were exposed to PM₂.₅ extracts. We measured the cell viability and release of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from airway epithelial cells, the DEC205 and CD86 expressions on APCs and cell proliferation, and TCR and CD19 expression on splenocytes. The water-soluble or aqueous extracts, especially those from Kawasaki in fall, had a greater cytotoxic effect than the lipid-soluble or organic extracts in airway epithelial cells, but they caused almost no pro-inflammatory response. Extract of fall, especially the aqueous extract from Fukuoka, increased the DEC205 and CD86 expressions on APC. Moreover, aqueous extracts of fall, summer, and spring from Fukuoka significantly increased proliferation of splenocytes. Organic extract of spring and summer from Kawasaki significantly elevated the TCR expression, and organic extract of summer from Kawasaki decreased the CD19 expression. These results suggest that PM₂.₅ extract samples are responsible for cytotoxicity in airway epithelial cells and for activating APCs and T-cells, which can contribute to the exacerbation of respiratory diseases such as asthma. These effects can differ by PM₂.₅ components, collection areas and seasons.|
|Rights:||© 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.|
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version.
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Articles|
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