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Title: P-wave picking for earthquake early warning: refinement of a T[pd] method
Authors: Yamada, Masumi
Mori, Jim
Author's alias: 山田, 真澄
Keywords: Earthquake early warning
Earthquake ground motions
Earthquake hazards
Issue Date: Jan-2022
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Journal title: Geophysical Journal International
Volume: 228
Issue: 1
Start page: 387
End page: 395
Abstract: Detecting P-wave onsets for online processing is an important component for real-time seismology. As earthquake early warning systems around the world come into operation, the importance of reliable P-wave detection has increased, since the accuracy of the earthquake information depends primarily on the quality of the detection. In addition to the accuracy of arrival time determination, the robustness in the presence of noise and the speed of detection are important factors in the methods used for the earthquake early warning. In this paper, we tried to improve the P-wave detection method designed for real-time processing of continuous waveforms. We used the new T[pd] method, and proposed a refinement algorithm to determine the P-wave arrival time. Applying the refinement process substantially decreases the errors of the P-wave arrival time. Using 606 strong motion records of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake sequence to test the refinement methods, the median of the error was decreased from 0.15 to 0.04 s. Only three P-wave arrivals were missed by the best threshold. Our results show that the T[pd] method provides better accuracy for estimating the P-wave arrival time compared to the STA/LTA method. The T[pd] method also shows better performance in detecting the P-wave arrivals of the target earthquakes in the presence of noise and coda of previous earthquakes. The T[pd] method can be computed quickly, so it would be suitable for the implementation in earthquake early warning systems.
Rights: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1093/gji/ggab349
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