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Title: Temporal activity patterns suggesting niche partitioning of sympatric carnivores in Borneo, Malaysia
Authors: Nakabayashi, Miyabi
Kanamori, Tomoko
Matsukawa, Aoi
Tangah, Joseph
Tuuga, Augustine
Malim, Peter T.
Bernard, Henry
Ahmad, Abdul Hamid
Matsuda, Ikki
Hanya, Goro
Author's alias: 中林, 雅
金森, 朝子
松川, あおい
松田, 一希
半谷, 吾郎
Keywords: Biological techniques
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 11
Thesis number: 19819
Abstract: To propose proper conservation measures and to elucidate coexistence mechanisms of sympatric carnivore species, we assessed temporal activity patterns of the sympatric carnivore species using 37, 379 photos collected for more than 3 years at three study sites in Borneo. We categorized activity patterns of nine carnivore species (one bear, three civets, two felids, one skunk, one mustelid, one linsang) by calculating the photo-capturing proportions at each time period (day, night, twilight). We then evaluated temporal activity overlaps by calculating the overlap coefficients. We identified six nocturnal (three civets, one felid, one skunk, one linsang), two diurnal (one felid, one mustelid), and one cathemeral (bear) species. Temporal activity overlaps were high among the nocturnal species. The two felid species possessing morphological and ecological similarities exhibited clear temporal niche segregation, but the three civet species with similar morphology and ecology did not. Broad dietary breadth may compensate for the high temporal niche overlaps among the nocturnal species. Despite the high species richness of Bornean carnivores, almost half are threatened with extinction. By comparing individual radio-tracking and our data, we propose that a long-term study of at least 2 or 3 years is necessary to understand animals’ temporal activity patterns, especially for sun bears and civets, by camera-trapping and to establish effective protection measures.
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1038/s41598-021-99341-6
PubMed ID: 34615956
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