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Title: Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃@Carbon Nanofibers: High Mass Loading Electrode Approaching Practical Sodium Secondary Batteries Utilizing Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
Authors: Hwang, Jinkwang
Matsumoto, Kazuhiko  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Hagiwara, Rika  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 松本, 一彦
萩原, 理加
Keywords: sodium secondary battery
carbon nanofiber
high mass loading electrode
ionic liquid
Issue Date: 22-Apr-2019
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Journal title: ACS Applied Energy Materials
Volume: 2
Issue: 4
Start page: 2818
End page: 2827
Abstract: Practical sodium secondary batteries require high power, high energy density, and long cyclability. The NASICON-type Na₃V₂PO₄)₃(NVP) is often investigated as a positive electrode material due to its high operation voltage, structural stability, and high Na⁺ ion conductivity. To overcome its low electronic conductivity, NVP requires carbon-coating or the addition of conductive materials for practical use. In this study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are incorporated as a conductive material along with glucose for carbon coating and fixing CNF frames to NVP particles. Uniform NVP composite and CNFs network (NVPC@CNFs) are obtained by a combination of sonication and the sol–gel method. Electrochemical measurements using a high mass loading electrode around ∼8.5 mg-active material cm⁻² and Na[FSA]-[C₂C₁im = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, FSA = bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquid electrolyte suggest safe operations of sodium secondary batteries up to intermediate temperatures (∼373 K). The rate performance further improved by using the NVPC@CNFs compared to NVPC and exhibited a high rate capability (at high geometric current density) of 51.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 10C (10.0 mA cm⁻²) at 298 K and 82.3 mAh g⁻¹ at 100C (100 mA cm⁻²) at 363 K (1C = 118 mA g⁻¹, 1.00 mA cm⁻²). Furthermore, this material with an ionic liquid electrolyte exhibited superior Coulombic efficiencies over 3000 cycles of 99.9%. Electrochemical measurements (electrical impedance spectroscopy, charge–discharge test, cycle test, and rate performance test) clarify the electrochemical characteristics of this material.
Rights: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Applied Energy Materials, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 26 March 2020 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version. この論文は出版社版でありません。引用の際には出版社版をご確認ご利用ください。
DOI(Published Version): 10.1021/acsaem.9b00176
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